Philadelphia Water Department

Appendices

Appendix Index

Appendix Description
A. Glossary List of key words or terms included in the text of the Manual.
B. Abbreviations Compiled list and explanations of all abbreviations used in the Manual.

 

C. PWD Stormwater Regulations The Stormwater Regulations, presented in Appendix C, have been developed in accordance with the Philadelphia Code §14-704(3), and they consist of four major Post-Construction Stormwater Management (PCSM) Requirements: Water Quality, Channel Protection, Flood Control, and Public Health and Safety (PHS) Release Rate. In addition, all earth disturbance activity must comply with the Erosion and Sediment Control (E&S) requirements of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, as specified in 25 Pa. Code §102.4.

The objectives of these requirements include:

  • Reduce pollution in runoff
  • Recharge the groundwater table and increase stream base flows
  • Restore more natural site hydrology
  • Reduce combined sewer overflows (CSOs)
  • Reduce the quantity, frequency and duration of CSOs
  • Protect stream channels and banks, fish habitat and infrastructure from erosion and sedimentation
  • Reduce or prevent flooding in areas downstream of development sites
D. Watershed Maps Watershed location plays an important role in identifying how the Stormwater Regulations, specifically the Post-Construction Stormwater Management Requirements, are applied to a project. To determine a site's watershed location using an address, the applicant can visit the Philadelphia Water Department's "Find Your Watershed" tool. Once the location is determined, Appendix D may be used to evaluate the development site's Flood Management District and sewershed. If he or she is unable to confirm either, the applicant should contact Stormwater Plan Review.
E. Plan and Report Checklists Section 2.3 provides Review Phase Submission Package checklists as well as detailed guidance on the submission process. Appendix E includes checklists itemizing the submittal requirements of plans and reports required for Review Phase Submission Packages. By ensuring that plans and reports meet the requirements identified in each checklist, the applicant can streamline his or her project's Review Phase.
F. Design Guidance Checklists The Philadelphia Water Department's Stormwater Plan Review Design Guidance Checklists, contained in Appendix F, are a supplemental list of guidelines for Regulatory compliance, plan creation, hydrologic modeling and calculations, and the design of specific stormwater management practices. They are provided to assist in the formation of both sound, compliant stormwater management designs and complete Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan (PCSMP) submissions. The designer should use the checklists as guidance during the design and calculation stages or as useful quality assurance/quality control checks prior to PCSMP Review Phase submission.
G. O&M Agreement Information Worksheet and Infiltration Waiver Appendix G contains both the Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Agreement Information Worksheet (Worksheet 4) and the Infiltration Waiver Request Form. Worksheet 4 provides PWD with necessary information on all pertinent parcels to aid in the preparation of the project’s O&M Agreement. If infiltration on a site is found to be infeasible, an Infiltration Waiver Request Form must be submitted to PWD for review. Submission of these documents is required as part of the Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan Review Phase.
H. Infiltration Testing Log Appendix H contains a template log for documenting infiltration testing results. This Infiltration Testing Log includes guidance for documenting soil characteristics and is required to be completed and submitted as part of the Geotechnical Report during the Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan Review Phase.
I. Landscape Guidance Detailed guidance and specifications for landscaping, including native and recommended non-invasive and prohibited non-native and invasive plant lists.
J. Construction Certification Package It is important, both for the property owner and for the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD), to ensure that all stormwater management practices (SMPs) are constructed in strict accordance with the Approved Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan (PCSMP). The Construction Certification Package (CCP) provides PWD with documentation that SMPs have been properly installated. Consisting of photographs, material receipts, and SMP Construction Certification Forms which must be customized by the design engineer prior to PCSMP approval, the CCP must be kept on-site and completed by a registered professional during construction. Appendix J contains a description of the required CCP documentation and a collection of customizable SMP Construction Certification Forms to be populated with key information during construction and installation.
K. Record Drawing Sample Along with the Construction Certification Package, the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) requires that Record Drawing(s) be submitted at the close of the project to ensure that the stormwater management practices (SMPs) and their elements were constructed in general accordance with the Approved Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan (PCSMP), and to document any field changes. Record Drawing(s) are required for SMP verification and are a key component of PWD’s compliance reporting. Samples which demonstrate how Approved PCSMP plan sheets should be marked-up in order to prepare Record Drawings are provided in Appendix K.

A. Glossary

Applicant: A property owner, developer, or other person or entity who has filed an application to the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) for approval to engage in or be exempt from any Regulated Activity at a Development Site in the City of Philadelphia.

Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO): A combined sewer overflow is an intermittent overflow or other untreated discharge from a municipal combined sewer system to the water of the Commonwealth occurring before the sewage treatment plant.

Conceptual Stormwater Management Plan: A preliminary stormwater management plan used by PWD Stormwater Plan Review to understand what is proposed at the project site, to confirm the proposed project limits of disturbance (LOD), and to assess the proposed stormwater management strategy. Conceptual Stormwater Management Plan requirements are described in Chapter 2 of this Manual.

Demolition: The razing or destruction, whether entirely or in significant part, of a building, structure, site, or object; including the removal of a building, structure, site, or object from its site or the removal or destruction of the façade or surface.

Design Storm: The magnitude and temporal distribution of precipitation from a storm event defined by probability of occurrence (e.g., five-year storm) and duration (e.g., 24 hours), used in the design and evaluation of stormwater management systems.

Developer: Any landowner, agent of such landowner, or tenant with the permission of such landowner, who makes or causes to be made a subdivision of land or land Development project prior to issuance of the Certificate of Occupancy.

Development:  Any human-induced change to improved or unimproved real estate, whether public or private. Development encompasses, but is not limited to, New Development, Redevelopment, Demolition, and Stormwater Retrofit. It includes the entire Development Site, even when the project is performed in phases.

Development Site: The land area where any Development activities are planned, conducted, or maintained, regardless of individual parcel ownership.  It includes contiguous areas of disturbance across Streets and other rights of way, or private streets and alleys, during any stage of or on any portion of a larger common plan of development or sale.

Diffused Drainage Discharge: Drainage discharge not confined to a single point location or channel, such as sheet flow or shallow concentrated flow.

Directly Connected Impervious Area (DCIA):  An Impervious Surface that is directly connected to the drainage system. DCIA generates surface runoff with a direct hydraulic connection to on-site drainage systems (e.g., inlets, curbs and gutters, pipes, etc.), PWD’s drainage systems, or stormwater management practices (SMPs) without flowing over pervious areas.

Disconnected Impervious Cover (DIC): Impervious cover from which runoff is directed toward pervious areas for management within the landscape.

Earth Disturbance: Any construction or other activity that disturbs the surface of land, including but not limited to, excavations, embankments, land development, subdivision development, and the moving, depositing, or storing of soil, rock, or earth. Other examples of earth disturbance in the context of PWD Stormwater Regulations are listed in Section 1.1.3.

Erosion and Sediment (E&S) Control Plan: A site-specific plan consisting of both drawings and a narrative that identifies measures to minimize accelerated erosion and sedimentation before, during, and after Earth Disturbance. E&S Plan requirements are described in Chapter 2 of this Manual.

Evaporation and Transpiration (Evapotranspiration): Evaporation is the process by which water changes from a liquid to gas. Transpiration is the process by which water moves through a plant and evaporates into the atmosphere from its leaves and exterior surfaces. The sum of evaporation and transpiration are commonly referred to as evapotranspiration.

Existing Conditions: Physical conditions on the site including land use, impervious surface, topography, vegetation, soils, and hydrology that exist on the site on the date the owner starts the development process.

Groundwater Recharge: The replenishment of existing natural underground water supplies from precipitation or overland flow without degrading groundwater quality.

Hotspots: Areas where land use or activities have contaminated the soil underlying the site such that infiltration of stormwater would likely cause groundwater contamination through leaching of the soil.

Impervious Liner: A physical barrier to prevent water from crossing a system boundary such as infiltrating through the subgrade beneath a stormwater management practice. Liners may include, but are not limited to, compacted till liners, clay liners, geomembrane liners, and concrete liners.

Impervious Surface: Any building, pavement, or other material that substantially bars the natural infiltration of surface water into the soil.

Infiltration: The process by which water enters the soil from the ground surface and can be measured as a rate.

Management District: Sub-area delineations that determine peak rate attenuation requirements. A Development Site located in more than one Management District shall conform to the requirements of the district into which the site discharges

Manual: The most recent version of the Philadelphia Stormwater Management Guidance Manual.

New Development: Development project on an unimproved tract of land where structures or impervious surfaces were removed before January 1, 1970.

Non-Structural Design: Stormwater management practices that incorporate, preserve, and protect existing natural features while promoting treatment, infiltration, evaporation, and transpiration of precipitation close to where it falls.

Operation & Maintenance (O&M) Agreement: An agreement or declaration which outlines the maintenance requirements associated with the Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan.

Pavement Disconnection: A type of DIC and a reduction in DCIA when pavement runoff is directed to a vegetated area that allows for infiltration, filtration, and an increased time of concentration.

Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan (PCSMP): A complete stormwater management plan set as described in the PWD Stormwater Regulations and in this Manual. PCSMP requirements are described in Chapter 2 of this Manual.

Predevelopment Condition: For New Development and Redevelopment, the dominant land use for the previous ten years preceding the planned project.

Record Drawings: Construction drawings revised to represent the as-built conditions.

Redevelopment: Development on an improved tract of land that includes, but is not limited to, the demolition or removal of existing structures or impervious surfaces and replacement with new impervious surfaces. This includes replacement of impervious surfaces that have been removed on or after January 1, 1970.

Registered Professional: A licensed Professional Engineer, Registered Architect, Landscape Architect, Professional Land Surveyor, Professional Geologist, or Licensed Contractor registered in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

Regulated Activity: Development on a Development Site in the City of Philadelphia that results in an area of Earth Disturbance greater than or equal to 15,000 square feet, greater than or equal to 5,000 square feet in the Darby and Cobbs Creeks Watershed, or as otherwise required by local, State, or Federal requirements. The area of Earth Disturbance during the construction phase determines requirements for the erosion and sediment controls and post-construction stormwater management.

Review Path: A linear series of submission, review, and approval/exemption procedures the applicant will navigate to demonstrate a project’s compliance with, or exemption from, the PWD Stormwater Regulations.

Review Phase: A step in a Review Path.  Each Review Path has one or more Phases.  Each Phase corresponds to one or more submittals of information for PWD's review.

Roof Runoff Isolation: The routing of runoff from non-vehicular roof area that is not commingled with untreated runoff.

Rooftop Disconnection: A type of DIC and a reduction in DCIA when a roof downspout is directed to a vegetated area which allows for infiltration, filtration, and increased time of concentration.

Sewershed: An area of land, or catchment, which drains via storm drain infrastructure to a common outlet point.

Site Assessment: An investigation of the administrative and physical factors that shape the development and stormwater management plan for a proposed site.  The assessment consists of three components – collection of background site factors, site factors inventory, and site factors analysis.

Storage Volume: The volume of stormwater runoff that can be held within the above-ground surface area and the pore spaces of any subsurface media or structure of a stormwater management practice.

Stormwater Management Practice (SMP): Any man-made or natural structure, system, landscape feature, channel, or improvement designed, constructed, installed, and/or used to detain, infiltrate, or otherwise control stormwater runoff quality, rate, or quantity.

Stormwater Pretreatment: Techniques employed to remove pollutants before they enter the SMP, including, but not limited to, the techniques listed as pretreatment in this Manual.

Stormwater Retrofit: The voluntary rehabilitation and/or installation of SMPs on a property to better manage stormwater runoff.

Street: Tract of land or part thereof with public access used for vehicular and/or pedestrian traffic, which is maintained by a City Agency, City Related Agency, other Government Agency, or a Non-Profit Organization Created by the City, as determined by the Department.

Street Maintenance Activities: Earth Disturbance activities within an existing Street as determined by the Department and described in the Manual Section 1.1.3.

Tree Disconnection Credit: A type of DIC and a reduction in DCIA when existing or newly proposed tree canopy from an approved species list extends over, or is in close proximity to, impervious area.

Watershed: An area of land that contains a common set of drainage pathways, streams, and rivers that all discharge to a single large body of water, such as a large river, lake, or ocean.

B. Abbreviations

AASHTO

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

ANSI        

American National Standards Institute

ASSE       

American Society of Safety Engineering

ASTM       

American Society of Testing and Materials

BMP         

Best Management Practice

CCP         

Construction Certification Package

CCTV       

Closed Circuit Television

CIP           

Cast Iron Pipe

cfs           

Cubic Feet per Second

CERCLA    

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

CERM       

Civil Engineering Reference Manual

CN            

Curve Number

CO&A       

Consent Order and Agreement

CSO         

Combined Sewer Overflow

CWA                

Clean Water Act (1972)

DCIA               

Directly Connected Impervious Area

DIC           

Disconnected Impervious Cover

DOR         

Department of Records

EMC         

Event Mean Concentration

EMI          

Electromagnetic Induction

E&S         

Erosion and Sediment Control

EPDM       

Ethylene Propylene Diene Terpolymer

ERSA       

Existing Resources and Site Analysis

ET       

Evapotranspiration

FLL          

German Landscape Research, Development and Construction Society

FEMA       

Federal Emergency Management Agency

GARP       

Greened Acre Retrofit Program

GPR         

Ground Penetrating Radar

GSI          

Green Stormwater Infrastructure

HDPE       

High-Density Polyethylene

HOA         

Homeowners Association

HSG         

Hydrologic Soil Group

IDF           

Intensity-Duration-Frequency

IWU          

Industrial Waste Unit

LEED       

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

L&I           

Department of Licenses and Inspections

LOD         

Limit of Disturbance

LTCPU     

Long Term Control Plan Update

MSC         

Medium Specific Concentration

MS4         

Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System

NJCAT      

New Jersey Center for Advanced Technology

NJ DEP     

New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

NPDES     

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

NOAA       

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOI          

Notice of Intent

NOT         

Notice of Termination

NRCS       

Natural Resources Conservation Service

O&M         

Operations and Maintenance

OPA         

Office of Property Assessment

OSHA       

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

PA DEP     

Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection

PCPC       

Philadelphia City Planning Commission

PCSM       

Post-Construction Stormwater Management

PCSMP     

Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan

PHS         

Public Health and Safety

POA         

Point of Analysis

PUD         

Planned Unit Development

PVC         

Polyvinyl Chloride

PWD         

Philadelphia Water Department

RCP         

Reinforced Concrete Pipe

ROW        

Right-of-Way

SIU           

Significant Industrial User

SMIP        

Stormwater Management Incentive Program

SMP         

Stormwater Management Practice

SPLP       

Synthetic Precipitation Leachate Procedure

SPT          

Standard Penetration Test

SSPA       

Steep Slope Protection Area

SWTR       

Surface Water Treatment Rule

TAPE       

Technology Assessment Protocol - Ecology

TARP       

Technology Acceptance and Reciprocity Partnership

TSS          

Total Suspended Solids

TMDL       

Total Maximum Daily Load

TPO         

Thermal Polyolefin

USDA       

United States Department of Agriculture

USEPA     

United States Environmental Protection Agency

USGBC

United States Green Building Council

USGS       

United States Geological Survey

VCP         

Vitrified Clay Pipe

WQv         

Water Quality Volume

WTR         

Water Transport Records

WWO        

Wissahickon Watershed Overlay

ZBA          

Zoning Board of Adjustments

C. PWD Stormwater Regulations

The Stormwater Regulations, presented in Appendix C, have been developed in accordance with the Philadelphia Code §14-704(3), and they consist of four major Post-Construction Stormwater Management (PCSM) Requirements: Water Quality, Channel Protection, Flood Control, and Public Health and Safety (PHS) Release Rate. In addition, all earth disturbance activity must comply with the Erosion and Sediment Control (E&S) requirements of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, as specified in 25 Pa. Code §102.4.

The objectives of these requirements include:

  • Reduce pollution in runoff
  • Recharge the groundwater table and increase stream base flows
  • Restore more natural site hydrology
  • Reduce combined sewer overflows (CSOs)
  • Reduce the quantity, frequency and duration of CSOs
  • Protect stream channels and banks, fish habitat and infrastructure from erosion and sedimentation
  • Reduce or prevent flooding in areas downstream of development sites

Philadelphia Code Chapter 6: Stormwater

D. Watershed Maps

Watershed location plays an important role in identifying how the Stormwater Regulations, specifically the Post-Construction Stormwater Management Requirements, are applied to a project. To determine a site's watershed location using an address, the applicant can visit the Philadelphia Water Department's "Find Your Watershed" tool. Once the location is determined, Appendix D may be used to evaluate the development site's Flood Management District and sewershed. If he or she is unable to confirm either, the applicant should contact Stormwater Plan Review.

E. Plan and Report Checklists

Section 2.3 provides Review Phase Submission Package checklists as well as detailed guidance on the submission process. Appendix E includes checklists itemizing the submittal requirements of plans and reports required for Review Phase Submission Packages. By ensuring that plans and reports meet the requirements identified in each checklist, the applicant can streamline his or her project's Review Phase.

Table E-1: General Plan Sheet Requirements

Table E-2: Existing Conditions Plan Requirements

Table E-3: Conceptual Stormwater Management Plan Requirements

Table E-4: Erosion and Sediment Control Plan Requirements

Table E-5: Standard Erosion and Sediment Control Notes

Table E-6: Standard Sequence of Construction Notes

Table E-7: Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan Report Requirements

Table E-8: Record Drawing Requirements

F. Design Guidance Checklists

The Philadelphia Water Department's Stormwater Plan Review Design Guidance Checklists contained in Appendix F are a supplemental list of guidelines for Regulatory compliance, plan creation, hydrologic modeling and calculations, and the design of specific stormwater management practices. They are provided to assist in the formation of both sound, compliant stormwater management designs and complete Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan (PCSMP) submissions. The designer should use the checklists as guidance during the design and calculation stages or as useful quality assurance/quality control checks prior to PCSMP Review Phase submission.

F.1 Stormwater Regulation Compliance

F.2 Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan

F.3 Erosion and Sediment Control

F.4 Disconnected Impervious Cover

F.5 Infiltration Testing and Soil Assessment

F.6 Hydrologic Model and Calculation Methods

F.7 Bioinfiltration/Bioretention

F.8 Porous Pavement

F.9 Green Roofs

F.10 Subsurface Infiltration

F.11 Cisterns

F.12 Blue Roofs

F.13 Ponds and Wet Basins

F.14 Subsurface Detention

F.15 Media Filters

F.16 Pretreatment

F.17 Inlet Controls

F.18 Outlet Controls

G. O&M Agreement Information Worksheet and Infiltration Waiver

The PWD Stormwater Plan Review Online Technical Worksheet, which is designed to standardize and summarize the results of design calculations, is a required part of each Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan (PCSMP) Review Phase Submission Package and must be completed online here.

This Appendix G contains both the Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Agreement Information Worksheet (Worksheet 4) and the Infiltration Waiver Request Form. Worksheet 4 provides PWD with necessary information on all pertinent parcels to aid in the preparation of the project's O&M Agreement. If infiltration on a site is found to be infeasible, an Infiltration Waiver Request Form must be submitted to PWD for review. Submission of these documents is required as part of the PCSMP Review Phase.

O&M Agreement Information Worksheet (PDF) (updated 6/3/2016)

Infiltration Waiver Request Form (PDF)

H. Infiltration Testing Log

Appendix H contains a template log for documenting infiltration testing results. This Infiltration Testing Log includes guidance for documenting soil characteristics and is required to be completed and submitted as part of the Geotechnical Report during the Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan Review Phase.

Infiltration Testing Log Template (XLSX)

Infiltration Testing Log Template (PDF)

I. Landscape Guidance

Native plant species are recommended over exotic foreign species because they are well adapted to local climate conditions.  This will result in less replacement and maintenance, while supporting the local ecology.

A list of herbaceous trees, shrubs, and plants native to Philadelphia and Pennsylvania and suitable for planting in stormwater management facilities are included in Table I-1. The list is intended as a guide for general planting purposes and planning considerations. Knowledgeable landscape designers and nursery suppliers may provide additional information for considering specific conditions for successful plant establishment and accounting for the variable nature of stormwater hydrology. Because individual plants often have unique growing requirements difficult to convey in a general listing, it will be necessary to perform additional research to obtain specific information on the plant species proposed in order to ensure successful plant establishment.

Table I-1 lists native and recommended plants, trees, shrubs, and grasses and is organized by Type and  Latin name. Additional information given for each species includes: Common name, National Wetland Indicator Status, hydrologic zone, inundation tolerance, drought tolerance, salt tolerance, mature canopy spread, mature height, light requirements, nativity, commercial availability, and notes to provide guidance for application and selection. For example, some trees are well-suited to landscaped areas that will receive stormwater runoff, while others may not tolerate the additional moisture.

National Wetland Indicator Status

The National Wetland Indicator Status (from Region 1, Reed, 1988) has been included to show “the estimated probability of a species occurring in wetlands versus non-wetlands” (Reed, 1988). Reed defines the indicator categories as follows:

  • Obligate wetland (OBL): Plants which nearly always (more than 99% of the time) occur in wetlands under natural conditions.
  • Facultative Wetland (FACW): Plants which usually occur in wetlands (from 67 to 99% of the time), but occasionally are found in non-wetlands.
  • Facultative (FAC): Plants which are equally likely to occur in wetlands and non-wetlands, and are found in wetlands from 34 to 66% of the time.
  • Facultative Upland (FACU): Plants which usually occur in non-wetlands (from 67 to 99% of the time), but occasionally are found in wetlands.
  • Upland (UPL): Plants which almost always (more than 99% of the time) occur in non-wetlands under natural conditions.
  • A given indicator status shown with a “+” or a “-” means that the species is more (+) or less (-) often found in wetlands than other plants with the same indicator status without the “+” or “-” designation.

Hydrologic Zones

For planting within a stormwater management practice (SMP), it is necessary to determine what hydrologic zones will be created within the SMP. Hydrologic zones describe the degree to which an area is inundated by water (see Figure 4.1-3 for an example of hydrologic zones in a bioinfiltration/bioretention basin).  Plants have differing tolerances to inundation, and, as an aid to landscape designers, these tolerance levels have been divided into six zones and corresponding appropriate plant species have been identified.  In Table I-1, each plant species has a corresponding hydrologic zone provided to indicate the most suitable planting location for successful establishment. While the most common zones for planting are listed in parentheses, the listing of additional zones indicates that a plant may survive over a broad range of hydrologic conditions. Just as plants may, on occasion, be found outside of their hardiness zone, they may also be found outside of their hydrologic zone. Additionally, hydrologic conditions in an SMP may fluctuate in unpredictable ways; thus the use of plants capable of tolerating wide varieties of hydrologic conditions greatly increases a successful planting. Conversely, plants suited for specific hydrologic conditions may perish when hydrologic conditions fluctuate, thus exposing the soil and increasing the chance for erosion.

Inundation Tolerance

Since the Wetland Indicator Status alone does not provide an indication of the depth or duration of flooding that a plant will tolerate, the “Inundation Tolerance” column is designed to provide further guidance. If a plant is capable of withstanding permanent saturation, the depth of this saturation is listed (for example, “saturated” indicates the soil can be moist at all times, “sat, 0-6”“ indicates that the species can survive in constantly moist soil conditions with up to six inches of standing water). Conversely, a plant may only tolerate seasonal inundation – such as after a storm event – or may not tolerate inundation at all. This type of plant would be well-suited for an SMP that is expected to drain quickly or in the drier zones of the SMP. 

Drought Tolerance (N=none; L=low; M=medium; H=high)

The drought tolerance column is meant to provide a way for SMP designers to select appropriate native plants that can survive in hot summer conditions, with a minimum of irrigation. Drought tolerance is defined as the relative tolerance of the plant to drought conditions compared to other plants in the same region (USDA, 2005).

Salt Tolerance (N=none; L=low; M=medium; H=high; U=unknown)

This column ranks the relative tolerance of a species to salt content in the soil. If U (unknown) is displayed, no research was found for that particular species.

Mature Canopy Spread

This column gives the SMP designer a rough estimate of the diameter (or spread) of a tree species’ branching when it has matured. This information indicates what the light conditions will be like beneath the tree for understory plantings; how much space should be left open between the tree planting pit and any vertical structures, such as buildings; how far apart the trees should be planted; and it gives an idea, along with the mature height of the species, of the tree’s growth habit. The mature canopy spread also provides a rough idea for how much leaf surface area will be available to intercept stormwater before it reaches the ground.

Mature Height

This column provides the approximate mature height of plant species in optimal growing conditions.  This height may be reduced dramatically in the urban environment where light, space, and other factors may not be as readily available as in a forest or field setting. However, by providing as much space as possible for a plant to grow and by choosing appropriate species for a planting area, improved – if not optimal – growing conditions can be achieved. For example, a tree planted in a sidewalk pit measuring four feet by four feet may only reach half its mature height, while a tree planted in a four-foot-wide “trough” style planting bed will grow taller and live longer, because it will have greater access to air and water.

Light Requirement

The light requirements for each species are listed as ranges between full shade and full sun. At the bottom of the range – full shade – plants thrive in conditions where they receive filtered, or dappled, light for the entire day (such as under an oak tree). In the middle of the range are plants that grow best in part shade, where they are in full shade for two to three hours during midday.  Plants that require full sun should be sited so that they receive five or more hours of direct sun during the growing season.  Some plants requiring full sun may still do well in a part shade environment, depending on the quality and duration of the light the plants receive when they are not in the shade.

Nativity

A native plant is an indigenous species that occurred in the region prior to settlement by the Europeans.  In this column, each species is located within a range of nativity to Philadelphia. Plants known to have existed in Philadelphia County are native to Philadelphia, while a wider geographic range lists plants native to the state, but not necessarily to the county. The widest geographic range lists a few species native to the United States, but not necessarily to Pennsylvania. The plants listed that are not specifically native to Philadelphia are included because of their demonstrated success within SMPs.

Commercial Availability (C=container; P=plug; S=seed)

Wildflower and grass species often come in a form known as a plug. These are often grown and sold in trays of 50 of the same species. They are essentially very small container plants, with a root/soil mass about an inch wide and two to four inches long. Most species available in plug form are also sold as seed. Often, a combination of plugs and seed will be used to establish a SMP quickly and provide immediate visual interest and stabilization.

Container-grown plants include trees, shrubs, wildflowers, ferns, grasses, and sedges. This is an excellent alternative to the far more expensive balled-and–burlapped (B&B) form of trees and shrubs, although the size of the tree is almost always smaller. Nurseries often provide a few container sizes for each species. 

Notes

PWD has included recommendations for street trees in the notes section of the native plants list and the recommended non-invasive plants, trees, shrubs, and grasses list to assist designers in selection of vegetation most appropriate for the harsh conditions which are often associated in close proximity to streets. It is likely that most of these areas will be hot in summer months until the trees become established.

Table I-1: Native and Recommended Non-invasive Plants

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Prohibited Non-native and Invasive Plants

Invasive non-native plants reproduce rapidly, degrade, and take over natural ecosystems, and have few, if any, natural controls to keep them in check. Brought in to new areas by people for a specific purpose or by accident, these species have characteristics that allow them to grow out of control and usually favor disturbed sites like areas of new construction. Under no circumstance should they be planted in a SMP.  Because of appealing characteristics, some of these plants are available for sale, and care should be taken not to purchase them. Additionally, the ability to identify and remove them before they can establish themselves is important, as they almost always invade due to their gregarious reproductive strategies. They can be especially hard to get rid of once they take hold. Table I-2 lists common invaders for the Mid-Atlantic region.

Table I-2: Common Invasive Species of the Mid-Atlantic Region

Type

Latin Name

Common Name

Availability

forb

Hemerocallis fulva

Common daylily

commercially available

forb

Alliaria petiolata

Garlic mustard

 

forb

Polygonum cuspidatum

Japanese knotweed

 

forb

Ranunculs ficaria

Lesser celadine

 

forb

Lythrum salicaria

Purple loosetrife

 

forb

Cirsium arvense

Canada thistle

 

forb

Lespedeza cuneata

Chinese lespedeza

 

forb

Heracleum mantegazzianum

Giant hogweed

 

forb

Murdannia keisak

Marsh dewflower

 

forb

Centaurea biebersteinii

Spotted knapweed

 

grass

Bambusa, Phyllostachys, Pseudosassa

Bamboo

commercially available

grass

Microstegium vimineum

Japanese stiltgrass

 

grass

Miscanthus sinensis

Chinese silvergrass

 

grass-like

Phragmites australis

Common reed

 

grass-like

Arundo donax

Giant reed - wild cane

 

shrub

Berberis thunbergii

Japanese barberry

commercially available

shrub

Ligustrum spp.

Privets

commercially available

shrub

Euonymus alata

Winged burning bush

commercially available

shrub

Buddleja davidii

Butterfly bush

commercially available

shrub

Spiraea japonica

Japanese spiraea -
Japanese meadowsweet

commercially available

shrub

Elaeagnus umbellata

Autumn olive

 

shrub

Lonicera spp.

Bush honeysuckles

commercially available

shrub

Rosa multiflora

Mulitflora rose

 

shrub

Rubus phoenicolasius

Wineberry

 

shrub

Rhodotypos scandens

Jetbead

 

Tree

Pyrus calleryana ‘Bradford’

Bradford pear

commercially available

Tree

Acer platanoides

Norway maple

commercially available

Tree

Quercus acutissima

Sawtooth oak

commercially available

Tree

Paulownia tomentosa

Princess tree

 

Tree

Ailanthus altissima

Tree of Heaven

 

Tree

Albizia julibrissin

Silk tree - mimosa tree

commercially available

Tree

Broussonetia papyrifera

Paper mulberry

 

Tree

Morus alba

White mulberry

 

Vine

Hedera helix

English Ivy

commercially available

Vine

Wisteria sinensis, W. floribunda

Wisteria, exotic

commercially available

Vine

Eunonymus fortunei

Creeping euonymus

commercially available

Vine

Lonicera japonica

Japanese honeysuckle

commercially available

Vine

Pueraria montana v. lobata

Kudzu

 

Vine

Polygonum perfoliatum

Mile-a-minute

 

Vine

Celastrus orbiculatus

Oriental bittersweet

 

Vine

Ampelopsis brevipedunculata

Porcelain berry

commercially available

Vine

Akebia quinata

Five-leaved akebia

 

Vine

Cynanchum louiseae

Louis’ swallowwort

 

J. Construction Certification Package

It is important, both for the property owner and for the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD), to ensure that all stormwater management practices (SMPs) are constructed in strict accordance with the Approved Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan (PCSMP). The Construction Certification Package (CCP) provides PWD with documentation that SMPs have been properly installed. Consisting of photographs, material receipts, and SMP Construction Certification Forms which must be customized by the design engineer prior to PCSMP approval, the CCP must be kept on-site and completed by a registered professional during construction. Appendix J contains a description of the required CCP documentation and a collection of customizable SMP Construction Certification Forms to be populated with key information during construction and installation.

Construction Certification Package (DOCX)

Construction Certification Package (PDF)

K. Record Drawing Sample

Along with the Construction Certification Package, the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) requires that Record Drawing(s) be submitted at the close of the project to ensure that the stormwater management practices (SMPs) and their elements were constructed in general accordance with the Approved Post-Construction Stormwater Management Plan (PCSMP), and to document any field changes. Record Drawing(s) are required for SMP verification and are a key component of PWD’s compliance reporting. Samples which demonstrate how Approved PCSMP plan sheets should be marked-up in order to prepare Record Drawings are provided in Appendix K.

Record Drawing Sample (PDF)

Record Drawing Sample Construction Details (PDF)